• Algeria, Africa


The Flag


Algeria
Algeria




Flag Description
The flag was adopted on July 3, 1962. There are two equal vertical bands of green and white, a red star within a red crescent in the middle of the two colors. The color green represents Islam, white represents purity and peace , and red represents liberty. The crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than other Muslim countries because the Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness.

The Map of Algeria

Map of Algeria
Map of Algeria



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Background

Algeria has had a very violent history and is still a very unsafe place. Algeria is the second largest country in Africa. In the early times, this area was known as “Numidia”. Algeria became part of the Turkish Empire in the mid sixteenth century. Because of pirates from North American ports, Algeria was attacked by the Dutch, the British and the Americans. The French conquered Algeria in 1830, and remained under their control until they fought for independence in 1950. That fight lasted from 1950 till 1962, when they finally did become independent of France. The National Liberation Front (FLN) has been the main political party ever since. But the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) was not happy with the way the FLN was running the country and tried to run elections to take control. When it looked like the FIS could win the elections, the army stepped in and stopped the elections. This caused radicals from the FIS to first start attacking the government officials, and then it led to a civil war. Between 1992 and 1998, over 100,000 people died from this fighting. This war ended in 1999, when the government again gained control and Abdelaziz Bouteflika won the presidential election, which most people think was fixed. There are still many problems in Algeria such as unemployment, shortage of housing, bad electrical and water supplies, government corruption and a lot of violence.

Tourism

 Come to beautiful Algeria!



Algeria Tourist Information and Tourism: Ghardaia skyline picture
Algeria Tourist Information and Tourism: Ghardaia skyline picture


See the beauty of the Sahara Desert!
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The dramatic sand dunes of Grand Erg Oriental!
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The soaring peaks of Hoggar Mountains!







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Relax on our beautiful beaches!






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Enjoy our botanical gardens!
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Spend the day at the family friendly Ben Aknoun Zoo!






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Enjoy the view of the Tassili n’Ajjer mountain range!






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See the monument des Martyrs in Algiers, which remembers those who lost their lives during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962)!






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Don't miss the Bardo Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography, where you will learn the history of Algeria!






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Visit the Museum of Fine Arts, where you will find an assortment of European and Algerian masterpieces!

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Timeline

1945
- Algerian demonstrators in the town of Setif unfurled an Algerian flag, banned by the French occupiers. As police began confiscating the flags, the crowds turned on the French, killing about two dozen of them. This led to an uprising in which Algerians say some 45,000 people may have died. Figures in France put the number at about 15,000 to 20,000. No one is quite sure.


1951
- The Algerian National Liberation Front began guerrilla warfare against the French.


1962
- Algeria gains independence from France.


1963
- Ahmed Ben Bella elected as first president.

1976
- Boumedienne introduces a new constitution which confirms commitment to socialism and role of the National Liberation Front (FLN) as the sole political party. Islam is recognised as state religion


2001- Several hundred people are killed as floods hit Algiers

2003
- More than 2,000 people are killed and thousands are injured by a powerful earthquake in the north. The worst-hit areas are east of Algiers



2007
- Parliamentary elections: dozens are killed in the run-up, in a wave of fighting between the military and armed groups. Pro-government parties retain their absolute majority in parliament.


2009
- President Bouteflika wins third term at the polls.


2009
- Disturbances mar two international association football matches between Egypt and Algeria , leading to diplomatic tensions between the two countries.

Location of Algeria



  • bordering the Mediterranean Sea
  • between Morocco and Tunisia
  • Geographic coordinates- 28 00 N, 3 00 E
  • Northern Africa


Area
  • total, 2,381,740 sq km
  • land, 2,381,740 sq km
  • water, 0 sq km
  • Area Comparative- slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas


Algeria's Borders
  • Libya 982 km
  • Mali 1,376 km
  • Mauritania 463 km
  • Morocco 1,559 km
  • Niger 956 km
  • Tunisia 965 km
  • Western Sahara 42 km


The Climate
  • Mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers on the coast
  • Drier with cold winters and hot summers on the high plateaus
Ethnic groups
  •  Arab-Berber 99%
  • European less than 1 %

Government type
  • Republic Government
Suffrage
  • Years of Age- 18
  • Universal
GDP Per Capita
  • 7,100 (est. 2009)
Agriculture Products
  •  Wheat
  • Barley
  • Oats
  • Grapes
  • Olives
  • Citrus
  • Fruits
  • Sheep
  • Cattle
Imports
  • Capital goods
  • Food and beverages
  • Consumer goods
Religion
  • Sunni Muslim- 99%
  • Christian- 1%
  • Jewish- 1%

Terrainmostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain Natural Resources
  • Natural gas
  • Iron ore
  • Phosphates
  • Uranium
  • Lead
  • Zinc
  • Petroleum
Land Use
  • Arable land- 3%
  • Permanent crops- 0%
  • Permanent pastures- 13%
  • Forests and woodland- 2%
  • Other- 82%
Natural Hazards
  • Mountains cause severe earthquakes
  • Mudslides
Environmental issues
  • soil erosion from overgrazing and poor farming
  • dumping of raw sewage
  • petroleum refining wastes
  • polluting of rivers and coastal waters
  • drugs
Language
  •  Arabic
  • French
  • Berber
Capital
  •  Algiers
  • Population- 1,722,000
Leader
Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been the president of Algeria since 1999. He is the tenth president of Algeria. He was born March 2, 1937, in Oujda, Morocco. He has three half-sisters, four brothers and one sister.
Labor Force by Occupation
  •  Government- 29.5%
  • Agriculture- 22%
  • Construction and Publics works- 16.2%
  • Industry- 13.5%
  • Commerce and Services 13.5%
  • Transportation and Communication- 5.2%
Industries
  • Petroleum
  • Natural Gas
  • Light Industries
  • Mining
  • Electrical
  • Petrochemical
  • Food Processing
  • Industrial Production Growth Rate- 7% (1999 est.)
Currency/Exchange Rate

  • Dinars (DA)= dollar
  • Dinars per US$1- 69.046
Education
Education in Algeria is free and required for children up to age 17. But not all students make it that long. Many students drop out between primary to secondary school. Only about half of the students attend secondary school, which consists of two three-year cycles beginning at age 12. Algeria also has a shortage of teachers and the literacy rate is not very high, especially for women. However, education for women has improved since Algeria gained independence in 1962. Algeria also has 34 Universities, 13 University Centers, 21 National Superior Institutes and 8 Preparatory Institutes.
Population
  • 35,369,000
Population growth rate
  • Population Growth Rate- 2.1%
Net Migration Rate
  • -0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 Population
Infant Mortality Rate
  • 32 per 1,000 live births
Life Expectancy
  • 70 years
Literacy
  • 70%
Independance
The Algerian people won independence after a hard fought war that lasted eight years. From 1952 to 1962, the Algerians fought to win independence from France. There were many losses in this war, and different people report different as to exactly how many lives were lost. Approximately 960,000 people died according to historians, but the Algerian government says that there were 1,500,000 killed. Many more were wounded.
Economic Overview
The backbone of the economy in Algeria is the hydrocarbons sector. This accounts for roughly 60% of the budget revenues, 30% of GDP and over 95% of export earnings. They also have the seventh largest reserve of natural gas in the world and rank 14th in oil reserves.
Unemployment
  • The Unemployed- 30%
Exports
  • Crude Oil
  • Natural Gas
  • Petroleum Products
  • export partners- Italy, US, Spain, Germany, and Canada
Illicit Drugs
Drugs seem to be a problem in Algeria, but it is difficult getting actual statistics on this. Over 87% of drugs that enter Algeria from western borders are headed abroad, but the remaining are used locally. Cannabis farming is very common and is no longer kept a secret. A survey by the National Centre for Study and Analysis of Population and Development claims that their studies so far cannot reflect the real level of drug abuse in Algeria.
Internet Access
The Internet service in Algeria is not nearly as advanced as what we have here in the United States. CERIST is the only full Internet provider in Algeria. While they are the only full service providers, there are other private companies offering web creation and hosting services and e-mail connection.


Works Cited
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/africa/algeria/

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html

http://www.maptown.com/geos/algeria.html

http://www.historycentral.com/nationbynation/Algeria/Index.html

http://worldinfozone.com/facts.php?country=algeria
http://www.algeria.world-guides.com/index.html

http://www.uneca.org/aisi/nici/country_profiles/algeria/algerinter.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algerian_War

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Algeria

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdelaziz_Bouteflika

**http://www.indexmundi.com/algeria/terrain.html**

http://www.classbrain.com/art_cr/publish/algeria_economy.shtml

http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/features/2007/07/02/feature-02

http://www.timelines.ws/countries/ALGERIA.HTML

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/811140.stm

Bill, Marlene T. Enchantment of the World Algeria. Chicago. Childrens Press: 1990.