Table of Contents:TimelineBackgroundFlag MeaningFlag HistoryMap of EritreaNatural ResourcesPopulation FactsGovernmental FactsEconomyCommunications StatusTransportationMilitary FactsTransnational IssuesTraveling InformationWorks Cited

Timeline

1941 - British forces occupy Eritrea.
1952 - UN decides to make Eritrea a federal component of Ethiopia.
1958 - Eritrean Liberation Front formed.
1962 - Ethiopia annexes Eritrea, turning it into a province; war of independence begins.
1970 - Leftist faction of the Eritrean Liberation Front splits to form the Eritrean People's Liberation Front.
1974 - Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie overthrown in a military coup.
1977-78 - Soviet advisers and Cuban troops help Ethiopian forces reverse significant advances made by Eritrean guerrillas.
1990 - Eritrean People's Liberation Front captures the Eritrean port of Massawa.
1991 - Eritrean People's Liberation Front captures the Eritrean capital, Asmara and forms a provisional government; the United Nations sets a date for a referendum on Eritrean independence with Ethiopian backing.
1993 - Eritreans almost unanimously vote for independence; Eritrea becomes independent and joins the United Nations.

Background


Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia by the United Nations in 1952 as part of a federation. 10 years after Eritrea's annexation as a province a 30 year struggle for independence began. Eritrean rebels defated governmental officials in 1991.
Eritrea.gif
Eritrea's Flag

Flag Meaning

Eritrea's Flag has many different meanings. The green triangle represents Eritrea's agricultural and livestock economy. The blue triangle stands for the marine wealth, and the red triangle represents the blood shed while Eritrea was fighting for freedom. The yellow on the olive wreath represents the mineral wealth of Eritrea, while the olive branch itself originates from the first national flag of Eritrea, which was used from 1952 to 1959. The olive branch also adopted from the United Nations flag which symbolizes peace.

Flag History

Eritrea received independence on May 24, 1993 and adopted their flag on December 5, 1995. It is one of the worlds newest flags.

 Map of Eritrea



646px-Location_Eritrea_AU_Africa_svg.png

eritrea-map.gif
Eritrea has an area of 117,600 square km, and the coordinates are 15 00 North, 39 00 East. Eritrea is slightly larger than Pennsylvania in size. Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Sudan border Eritrea.

Natural Resources

  • Gold
  • Potash
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Salt
  • Fish

Population Facts

5,647,168 (July 2010 Estimate)
  • 0-14 years 42.8%
  • 15-64 years old 53.7%
  • 65+ years old 3.6%

  • Median age (male) 18.2 years old
  • Median age (female) 18.9 years old
  • Median age (total) 18.5 years old

  • Birth Rate: 34.2 births / 1,000 population
  • Death Rate: 8.43 deaths / 1,000 population

  • Infant Mortality Rate (total) : 43.33 / 1,000
  • Infant Mortality Rate (male) : 48.97 / 1,000
  • Infant Mortality Rate (female) : 37.51 / 1,000

  • Life Expectancy (total) : 61.78 years
  • Life Expectancy (male) : 59.78 years
  • Life Expectancy (female) : 63.9 years

  • Fertility Rate: 4.6 children / woman

  • Nationality : Eritrean
  • Ethnic Groups : Triginya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho 3%, Other 3%
  • Religions : Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
  • Languages : Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, and other Cushitic languages
  • Major Diseases : Bacterial Diahrrhea, hepatitis A, Typhoid fever, Malaria

Governmental Facts


  • Government Type : Transitional
  • Capital : Asmara
  • Suffrage : 18 years old to vote
  • Chief of State : President ISAIAS Afworki (since June 8 1993)
  • Head of Government : President ISAIAS Afworki
  • President : President ISAIAS Afworki
  • Elected By : National Assembly for 5 year term (2 term maximum)

Economy

  • GDP (Gross Domestic Product) : $3.961 billion (Purchasing Power Parity)
  • GDP : $1.873 billion (Official Exchange Rate)
  • GDP : 3.6% (Real Growth Rate)
  • Population Below Poverty Rate : 50%
  • Budget : $373.2 million revenue
  • Budget : $738.8 million expenditures
  • Inflation Rate : 20%
  • Money Stock : $896.2 million
  • Agricultural Products : Sorghum, Lentils, Vegetables, Corn, Cotton, Tobacco, Sisal, livestock, goats, fish
  • Exports : $17 million
  • Debt : $311 million

Communications Status

  • Telephones : 40,400
  • Cellular Phones : 108,600
  • Telephone System : Inadequate
  • Internet Country Code : .er
  • Internet Hosts : 1,241
  • Internet Users : 200,000

Transportation

  • Airports : 13
  • Heliports : 1
  • Roadways : 4,010 km
  • Ports and Terminals : Assab, Massawa

Military Facts

  • Military Branches : Navy, Air Force, Ground Forces
  • Service Age : 18 - 40 years old
  • Manpower (Available) : 1,307,012 males
  • Manpower (Available) : 1,319,682 females
  • Manpower (Fit) : 864,608 males
  • Manpower (Fit) : 920,104 females
  • Military Expenditures : 6.3% of GDP

Transnational Issues

  • Internally Displaced Humans : 32,000
  • Human Trafficking : Eritrea is a source country for humans trafficked for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation

Traveling Information

Eritrea was once regarded as a good place for traveling, but the fight with Ethiopia has ruined this.

Works Cited:

http://www.worldflags101.com/e/eritrea-flag.aspx
http://www.flagsof.net/flags/eritrea/
http://images.allrefer.com/reference/world/map-images/eritrea-map.gif
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Location_Eritrea_AU_Africa.svg/646px-Location_Eritrea_AU_Africa.svg.png
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/er.html#top
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/eritrea
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1070861.stm