The Ethiopian flag was adopted on February 6th, 1996. The flag has the coat of arms emblem on it. The circle overlaps the top and bottom bands of the flag.
The symbol is made of five Y-shapes. They are each rotated 72 degrees around the center of the star.
Meanings of the colors:

  • GREEN- Represents the fertility of the country

  • YELLOW- The religious freedom found there

  • RED- The lives sacrificed in the protection of national integrity. The colors are also connected to the HOLY TRINITY, & the THREE MAIN PROVINCES.

National Anthem: March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia
Respect for citizenship is strong in our Ethiopia;
National pride is seen, shining from one side to another.
For peace, for justice, for the freedom of peoples,
In equality and in love we stand united.
Firm of foundation, we do not dismiss humanness;
We are peoples who live through work.
Wonderful is the stage of tradition, mistress of proud heritage,
Mother of natural virtue, mother of a valorous people.
We shall protect you - we have a duty;
Our Ethiopia, live! And let us be proud of you!

The Geography of Ethiopia
  • Cities in Ethiopia- Dire Dawa (237,000), Nazret (189,000), Gondar (163,000), Dessie (142,000), Mekelle (141,000), Bahir Dar (140,000), Jimma (132,000), Awassa (104,000)

  • Capital of Ethiopia- Addis Ababa (pop. 5 million)

  • Terrain: High plateau, mountains, dry lowland plains.

  • Climate: Temperate in the highlands; hot in the lowlands.

  • Area: 1.1 million sq. km (472,000 sq. mi.); about the size of Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico combined.
Zones of Ethiopia.


  • Type of Government- Federal Republic

  • Constitution- Ratified in 1994
  • Branches:
-Executive- president
-Council of State, Council of Ministers.
-Executive power remains with the prime minister.
-Legislative- bicameral parliament.
- divided into federal and regional courts.

Government Officials

  • President- Girma Wolde-Giorgis
  • Prime Minister- Meles Zenawi
  • Deputy Prime Minister- Addisu Legesse
  • Minister of National Defense- Siraj Fegisa
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs- Seyoum Mesfin
  • Mayor of Addis Ababa (Capitol of Ethiopia)- Kuma Demeska
About the Ethiopian People
  • Nationality -Ethiopian's

  • Population- 80 million & more.
  • Growth Rate- 3.2%.
  • Ethnic Groups- Oromo 40%, Amhara 25%, Tigre 7%, Somali 6%, Sidama 9%, Gurage 2%, Wolaita 4%, Afar 4%, other nationalities 3%.
  • Religions- Ethiopian Orthodox Christian 40%, Sunni Muslim 45-50%, Protestant 5%, remainder native beliefs.
  • Languages- Amharic (authentic language), Tigrinya, Arabic, Guaragigna, Oromifa, English, Somali.
  • Education- Years necessary-none. Attendance ( in elementary)- 57%. Literacy- 43%.
  • Health- Infant mortality rate- 93...1,000 live births.
  • Work force- Agriculture- 80%. Industry and commerce- 20%.

History of Ethiopia

  • Hominid bones were discovered in eastern Ethiopia
    • Dating back 4.4 million years ago
  • Ethiopia is one of the earliest known locations of human ancestors
  • Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa
  • As well as one of the oldest in the world.

Time line:

  1. 1530-31 - Muslim leader Ahmad Gran conquers much of Ethiopia.
  2. 1889 - Addis Ababa becomes Ethiopia’s capital.
  3. 1895 - Italy invades Ethiopia.
  4. 1896 - Italian forces defeated by the Ethiopians at Adwa
  5. 1936 - Italians capture Addis Ababa, Haile Selassie flees, king of Italy made emperor of Ethiopia; Ethiopia combined with Eritrea and Italian Somaliland to become Italian East Africa.
  6. 1941 - British and Commonwealth troops, greatly aided by the Ethiopian resistance—the arbegnoch—defeat the Italians, and restore Haile Selassie to his throne.
  7. 1952 - United Nations federates Eritrea with Ethiopia.
  8. 1977-79 - Thousands of government opponents die in Red Terror orchestrated by Mengistu; collectivisation of agriculture begins; Tigrayan People's Liberation Front launches war for regional autonomy.
  9. 1977 - Somalia invades Ethiopia's Ogaden region.
  10. 1978 - Somali forces defeated with massive help from the Soviet Union and Cuba.
  11. 1985 - Worst famine in a decade strikes; Western food aid sent; thousands forcibly resettled from Eritrea and Tigre.
  12. 1987 - Mengistu elected president under a new constitution.
  13. 1988 - Ethiopia and Somalia sign a peace treaty.
  14. 1994 - New constitution divides Ethiopia into ethnically-based regions.
  15. 2000 April - More than eight million Ethiopians face starvation after three successive years of poor rain and failed harvests.
  16. 2000 December - Ethiopia and Eritrea sign a peace agreement in Algeria, formally ending two years of conflict. The agreement establishes commissions to delineate the disputed border and provides for the exchange of prisoners and the return of displaced people.
  17. 2001 21 May - Ethiopia and Eritrea agree on a UN-proposed mediator to try to demarcate the disputed border.

Labor Force
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 85%
Industry: 5%
Services: 10% (Established in 2009.)

12 percent of the GDP consists of the Ethiopian industry. Including both mining and manufacturing. Also providing employment for 8% of the country's labor force. Under the Derg regime, almost all of the major industries were owned by the state. With a borderline average annual growth rate of 3.8% between 1980 and 1987.

Natural Hazards in Ethiopia- geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcano eruptions, and droughts
Drugs(illegal) in Ethiopia:
  • Cannabis,
  • Coca
  • Cocaine
  • Depressants
  • Drugs
  • Drug abuse
  • Hallucinogens
  • Hashish
  • Heroin
  • Mandrax
  • Marijuana
  • Methaqualone
  • Narcotics
  • Opium
  • Opium poppy
  • Poppy straw
  • Qat (kat, khat)
  • Quaaludes
  • Stimulants

Sports in Ethiopia
  • Soccer & Track & Field are the top sports played in Ethiopia.

Diseases In Ethiopia
  • Travelers' Diarrhea
  • Cholera
  • Malaria
  • Escherichia coli diarrhea
  • Hepatitis A
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Typhoid Fever
  • Yellow Fever
  • Insect Born Disease
  • Parasitic Disease
  • Dengue Fever
  • Filariasis
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Onchocerciasis
  • Trypanosomiasis
  • Loiasis
  • Rift Valley Fever
  • Hepatitis B
  • Amebiasis
  • Diptheria
  • Tuberculosis

  • Routine Shots- if not already taken
  • Hepatitis A & B shots.
  • Typhoid
  • Polio
  • Yellow Fever
  • Meningococcal (meningitis)
  • Rabies



By: Amanda KramerPeriod 1