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Nigeria:TimelineLand and ClimatePeople and Lifestyle of NigeriaLand and AgricultureEconomyGovernmentTourist InformationWork CitedBackground of Nigeria:
  • British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II was granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule,eventually a a new constitution was adopted in 1999. A peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the difficult tasks of reforming a petroleum-based economy, who has been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and a rough democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.


Timeline:
  • 500 B.C: The Nok people inhabited the area of Nigeria.
  • 13th century:The Hausa, who lived in the north, converted to Islam.
  • 1800's: The Fuilani built a great empire.
    • In the southwest, the Yoruba established the Kingdom of Oyo and extended its influence asfar as modern Togo. The Ibo, located in the southeast, remained relatively isolated.
  • 1851: Portuguese collaborated with local kings and obas to create the slave trade.
    • The British tried to stop the slave trade, they launched an attack and defeated the Oba. Unfortantley, the slave trade continued until 1861.
  • 1866-1874: The city was apart of the United Kingdom's West African Settlements after which became a section in the Gold Coast.
  • 1906: The city was then once again ruled by Nigeria.
  • 1914: Then the United Kingdom's West African Settlements became the capital of Nigeria.
  • 1960: Lagos became the new capital of Nigeria beacause of it's great gain of independence.
  • 1975: It was then changed to the state capital of Lagos, declared by the Ikeja.
  • 1991: Abuja replaced it as the national capital.
  • 1999: President of Nigeria, Olusegun Obasanjo, assumed Nigeria had all the power needed.

Land and Climate
The land and climate varies in different parts of Nigeria. From the North to the South, or East and West, you will see a climate change in all four areas. Nigeria is surrounded by different parts of Africa which include; Chad, Cameroon, Niger and Benin. As you scroll down, you find a graph that breaks down the land of Nigeria.


Official name:
Federal Republic of Nigeria

Area:
total: 923,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km

Climate:
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates:
10 00 N, 8 00 E

Comparative Area:
slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline:
853 km

Terrain:
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m



The People and Lifestyle of Nigeria The people of Nigeria live much different lives then us Americans. For Nigerians, their literacy rate is extremely high. Their education is no a main priority unlike most Amersican. The Nigerians lifestyle is much different too. Jobs in Nigeria usually consist on farms for agricultural purposes. Nigerians also speak many differernt foreign languages. They also believe in certain religions and special traditions. Below I have broken down subtopics and listed important facts.
Population:
  • 149,229,09 (estimation)

  • Growth rate 3%
Languages:
  • English
  • Hausa
  • Yoruba
  • Ibo
  • Fulani
Currency:
  • Naira
Ethnic Groups:
  • Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups.
    • the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Religions:
  • Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Leader:
  • Umaru Musa Yar'Adua
Education:
  • School Expectancy- total is 8 years, Male average: 9 years, Female average: 7 years.
  • GDP per Capita- $1,969
Infant Mortality Rate:
  • total:94.35 deaths/1,000 live births
  • male: 100.38 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female:87.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life Expectency:
  • total population:46.94 years
  • male:46.16 years
  • female: 47.76 years (2010 est.)
Literacy:
  • definition:
age 15 and over can read and write
  • Total population: 68%
  • male: 75.7%
  • female: 60.6%
Birth-rate:
  • 36.65 births/1,000 population
Death-rate:
  • 16.56 deaths/1,000 population

Land Use and AgricultureAgriculture:
  • Agriculture is by far the most important sector of Nigeria's economy.
  • Makes up about 70% of labor
  • The Nigerian farms produce about 80% of food.
  • The government favors that cooraporative agricultural areas.
  • The agricultural products of Nigeria can be divided into two main groups:food crops, produced for ho,e consumption, and export products. Prior the civil war, the country was selfsufficient in food, but imports of food increased substantially after 1973.
Agriculture products:
  • The most important crops are yams and manioc.
  • In the South, the most important crop is Sorghum. (form or corn)
  • In the North, millet, is the famous crop grown.
  • Agricultural expots decreased in quanitiy after after 1970, partly because of the discouraging effect of low world prices. In 1979, the importing of many foods was banned including fresh milk, vegtables, roots and tubers,fruits and poultry. The exporting milk, sugar, flour,and hides and skins was also banned. During 1985 to 1987, imports of of wheat,corn rice and vegtables oil were banned as declining income frfom oil encouraged greater attention to the agricultura sector.
Imports :
  • Machinery
  • Chemicals
  • Transport equitment
  • Manifactured goods
  • Foods
  • Live animals
Exports:
  • Potroleum
  • Potroleum Products
  • Cocoa
  • Rubber
  • Oil
  • Natural Gasses
Natural Resources:
  • natural gas
  • Petroleum
  • tin
  • iron ore
  • coal
  • limestone
  • niobium
  • lead
  • zinc
  • arable land
Land Use:
  • This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest; permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest; includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber; other - any land not arable or under permanent crops; includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.
Natural Hazards:
  • Flooding
  • Periodic Droughts
  • Potential natural disasters
  • Intense bush fires
Enviromental Issues:
  • soil degradation
  • rapid deforestation
  • urban air and water pollution
  • desertification
  • oil pollution (water, soil, air destruction)
  • loss of arable land
  • rapid urbanization
Illicit Drugs:
  • a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity.
    • List of drugs:
      • Cannabis, Coca, Cocaine, depressants, Hallucinogens,Hashish, Heroin, etc.

Economy


Economic Overview:
  • Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, has undertaken several reforms over the past decade. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 95% of foreign exchange earnings and about 80% of budgetary revenues. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. Since 2008 the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt-relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments - a total package worth $30 billion of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. The deal requires Nigeria to be subject to stringent IMF reviews. President YAR'ADUA has pledged to continue the economic reforms of his predecessor with emphasis on infrastructure improvements. Infrastructure is the main impediment to growth. The government is working toward developing stronger public-private partnerships for electricity and roads.
Labor Force by Occupation:
  • Agriculture Labor is now up to 70%.
  • Industrial Labor is now up to 10%.
  • Service Labor is now up to 20%.
Industries:
  • Major Industries include: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair.
Currency/Exchange Rate:
  • Nairas (NGN) per US dollar - 150.48 (2009), 117.8 (2008), 127.46 (2007), 127.38 (2006), 132.59 (2005)
Unemployment:
  • ||~ Year ||~ Unemployment rate ||~ Rank ||~ Percent Change ||~ Date of Information ||
    || 2003 || 28.00 % || 30 || || 1992 est. ||
    || 2006 || 2.90 % || 27 || -89.64 % || 2005 est. ||
    || 2007 || 5.80 % || 65 || 100.00 % || 2006 est. ||
    || 2008 || 4.90 % || 65 || -15.52 % || 2007 est. ||
    || 2009 || 4.90 % || 60 || 0.00 % || 2007 est. ||
    || 2010 || 4.90 % || 46 || 0.00 % || 2007 est. ||

Government
Nigeria is composed of 36 states and one territory, each with elected governors and legislatures.
Parliament consists of a 109-seat Senate (three seats for each state and one for the capital) and a 360-seat House of Representatives. Members of both chambers are elected to four-year terms. The voting age is 18.
Government Type:
  • Nigeria's government type is Federal Republic.
Independence:
  • Independence was declared on October 1st, 1960 from the United Kingdom.
Tourist Information

How can I get to Nigeria?
  • International airports in Lagos, Abuja, Kano, and Port Harcourt ( By plane is the fastest and most efficient way of getting to Nigeria)
  • Other ways include: bus, train, cars(depending where you live in Africa) and boat (Cruises).
What are good places to see in Nigeria?
  • Abuja is a major tourist attraction. The weather is mainly warm and sunny in Abuja. Major places to see in Abuja are the National Church of Nigeria, Abuja Stadium, Gurara Falls, and Aso and Zuma Rock .
  • Lagos has only a short rain season. The best places to visit are the Lagios Lagoon, Oba's Palace, Water House, Cuban Lodge and Shitta Mosque.
  • Calabar has many attractions that include the earliest military barracks, first Presbyterian Church, the first monorail, public general hospital, the oldest post office and botanical gardens.
  • Kano's main attractions include the Old City, Emir's Palace, Great Mosque and Gida Dan Hausa.
Nigeria has so many tourist attractions, it's a great place to bring the whole family. Nigeria has many historical places to visit from military barracks to the Old City. The weather is always warm and sunny. Though Nigeria does get rain, theres many activities to take part in if your looking to stay dry. Plan your next vacation in Nigeria! Have fun visiting beautiful scenery and learning Nigeria's history! You can see where it all begain if you just PLAN!!
Work Cited