Sao Tome and Principe


Background: Sao Tome and Principe was discover by Portugal in the late 15 century. In the 19 th century the country gave a way to coffee and cocoa due to much sugar provided from the islands. All was grown on a plantation and they did use slave labor, which went into the 20th century. They were independent until 1975, and then democratic reforms were insulted in the late 1980s.

Location: Sao Tome and Principe is located in western Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, right above the equator. Area: The total land size is 964 square kilometers. Climate: The climate is tropical; hot, humid, and it rains sometimes throughout the year. Terrain: The terrain of this country mostly consists of Volcanic and Mountainous Natural Resources:
  • Fish
  • Hydro power
Land Use:
  • Arable land- 8.33%
  • Permanent Crops- 48.96%
  • Other-42.71%
Environmental Issues: Soil erosion and exhaustion. Agriculture Products:
  • Cocoa
  • Coconuts
  • Palm Kernels
  • Copra
  • Cinnamon
  • Pepper
  • Coffee
  • Bananas
  • Papayas
  • Beans
  • Poultry
  • Fish

  • Machinery and electrical equipment
  • Food products
  • Petroleum products
Exports (commodities):
  • Cocoa
  • Copra
  • Coffee
  • Palm Oil
  • Light Construction
  • Textiles
  • Soap
  • Beer
  • Fish Processing
  • Timber

Flag: Green and yellow strips with two black stars. There also is a red triangle which represents struggle for independence and the two black stars represent the two islands.

Sao Tome and Principe
Sao Tome and Principe

Population: 212, 679 is the current population in Sao Tome and Principe.
  • The growth rate is 3.093%
  • Birth rate is 38.54/ 1,000 population.
  • Death rate is 5.8/ 1,000 population.

Life expectancy: Total population 68 years old.
  • Male- 66 years of age
  • Female- 70 years of age

Literacy: Over the age of 15 are able to read and write.
  • Total Population- 84.9%
-Male: 99.2%
-Female: 77.9%


Suffrage: The suffrage is 18 years old and it's universal.

Language: Portuguese is the official language.

Education: Not a very well developed education system; lack of classrooms, teachers, materials, textbooks, and community involvement in school planning/ managing.

Ethnic groups: Mestico, Angolares, Forros, Servicais/Tongas, European.

Independence: from Portugal was July 12, 1975.
  • Constitution was improved in March of 1990.
  • Principe has had a self government since April 29, 1995

Religion: Mostly Roman Catholic; it was introduced by the Portuguese in the late 15th Century.
  • Catholic
  • Evangelical
  • New Apostolic
  • Adventist
  • Other

Government Type: Republic

Capital: Sao Tome

Leader: Fradique Bandiera

Economic Overview: The small island of Sao Tome and Principe has been having difficulties with money and being in debt. They have been depending mainly on cocoa. But since there has been a drought and mismanagement they have nothing else to rely on. After being benefited many years with a large sum of money to help get out of debt with, it has not been helping very much. Sao Tome and Principe's Economy has been declining for many years.

Currency/Exchange Rate: The Sao Tome and Principe dollar is called the Dobra.

GDP (per capita): $1,700

Labor Force by Occupation: Due to shortages of skilled workers; population mainly engaged in agriculture and fishing.


Time line:
16th Century- The Portuguese colonized Sao Tome and Principe, then brought in slaves for the sugar plantations.
1800s- Sao Tome becomes one of world's major Cocoa producers.
1951- Becomes overseas province of Portugal.
1975- Sao Tome became Independent.
1990- New constitution was established; allowed other opposing parties.
1991- First multiparty election.
2002- New government has been established.

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