Official Name: Republic of Sudan 

The Sudan flag has been resently adopted in the 20th of May, 1970. The flag was changed after Sudan gained its Independence in January 1, 1956 after being separated by two rules. Northern Sudan by Egypt in 1821- Southern Sudan by Britain in 1877. Once defeating the British/Egyptian rule in 1956, Sudan has little relief from civil war between the Arab, Islamic north and African south.
Sudanic flag consist of four (4) colors,Green, Red, White,and Black . Green represents abundant, land and agriculture. Red for the blood that has been shed through war. White for peace ,the Black for the strong and hero's who died in war of Mahdiya Revolution. The The flag was changed in May to show the Independence and freedom-a start from a new foot.

Sudanic Map

Sudan Map

The republic of Sudan is the largest country in Africa, twice(2 times) the size of Alaska.Sudan is located South of Egypt and west of Nubia(Cush). Central African Republic SW and D.R. Congo South. Latitude: 15.36
Longitude: 32.32
Khartoum is the capital of Sudan, though Sudan is under war and Genocides. Sudan will soon have two (2) Capitals once the north(Islamic) and South (Christianity) split.the North capital will still be Khartoum though the South new capital will be Juba. Sudan time difference is in the UTC /GMT zone +3 hours, 7 to 6 hours from the U.S. At daily savings hours it will be 7 and at non daily savings/ regular time it is 6 hr apart of U.S. Population: 41,980,182 (rank=29) Area, sq. mi.: 967,500 (rank=10)
Area, sq. km.: 2,505,813

Sudan Participation/Climate, and Topography Map

Sudan Providence Map
Sudan Providence and Population
Sudanese providence holds various ethnic groups. Originally Sudan ethnic groups were Dinka, Funj, Nuer, Shilluk also Nubia from the northern Nile. These ethnic group may be found in the southern part of Sudan. The North euthenics are Arabic/ Muslim only, because most migrated from eastern Europe.In the north ethnic groups like the south, that have African ancestry and Arabic costumes are there as well. South Sudan holds more ethnics than the north because of the Genocides and wars of religion has pushed the Sudanese to the southern part of their land.

Sudan Population Today: 41.98 million is increasing by 2.2 percent annually. Urban areas hold 45 percent. Northern: Khartoum's metropolitan area and cities of Omdurman, is home to five(5) million people. South largest city Juba population is 150,000. 52% of Sudan are Africans, 39% are Arabic and 6% Bejan.

Sudan Climate/Participation Map

Sudan Participation is different daily
Sudan Particapation Map

from the north to south. The north is mainly deserts and dry lands. The south mainly grassland and forests. Why?... because the Sahara desert crosses the northern part of Sudan, the southern part gets more rain that help grow its grasslands. The Nile also provides help for grasslands and farmers with planting.

Sudan Natural Resources

Sudan geography map

The northern part of Sudan contains deserts and the south holds various resources from oil to grasslands. Sudan is used for its three(3) resources, some over the world and others for regional uses only. Sudan's Human Dev. Index rank: 150 of 182 countries Adjustments for women are 127 of 155 countries.

the souths Abundant rainfall permits both agriculture and grazing grounds for the large herds owned by nomadic tribes. The north, irrigation farming prevails along the banks of the Nile and other rivers . Main crops from the south are cotton, , peanuts, sugarcane,sesame , citrus fruits, dates, mangoes, coffee, and tobacco. subsistence crops are sorghum, millet, wheat, beans, cow peas, pulses, corn, and barley. Sudan exports Commodities are oil and petroleum products; cotton, livestock, groundnuts, sesame, gum Arabic, and sugar. Sudan Imports are foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles and also wheat.

Sudan Humanitarian Statistics

Compared to the world:29th
Growth rate
2.143% -2010 est.
compared to the world: 48th
Infant morality rate
total: 82.43 deaths/1,000 live births
compared to the world: 14
Life expectancy from birth
total population: 51.42 years
compared to the world: 208th
Male: 50.49 years
Female: 52.4 years 2010 est.
Net Migration
0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 populations 2010 est.
compared to the world: 61st
Literacy rate men, woman
15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.1%
Male: 71.8%
Female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
Sudan Currency is the pound.

Natural Resources in Sudan
Sudan Riches:

Most natural resources found in Sudan range from oil to natural gas to gold, iron ore, copper, and other industrial metals. The south contains Oil and Petroleum, Wildlife, and Plants Resources. Oil in Sudan are used for various of things and provide for many people across the world.
Animal resources in Sudan are mainly wildlife ranging from elephants to lions, crocodiles to zebras, monkeys to boars, eagles to vultures, and cranes.
Plant resources in south
Sudan comes from tropical climates containing open savanna grasslands, large marshland and rain forests.

Sudan is used for its three(3) resources.

Economy of
Sudan Statistics

GDP (2009 est.):
$92.81 billion
GDP annual growth rate (2009 est.):
Per capita income GDP (2009 est.):
Avg. annual inflation rate (2009 est.):


Exports: $8464 billion from crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, gold, sorghum, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar, meat, hides, live animals, and sesame seeds. Major markets China, Japan, Indonesia, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Korea.

Public and private education systems were provided by the government after independence.they were designed by Britain around the 20th century more to give civil servants and professionals serving the colonial administration than to educate the Sudanese.still the distribution of facilities, enrollments, and staffs were biased in favor needs of the administration and a Western curriculum because moat of the education facilities tend to be surrounding Khartoum, and lesser sought in other urban areas. (Though the Sudanese population was mostly rural.)Students -in larger cities of Sudan start school at the age of 4 and attend school for 2 more years before attending regular school courses. The north suffered from shortages of teachers and buildings, though the south education was even more inadequate. With 33 universities total -some with lower activity levels- Sudan faces educational problems. Reforms intended to make education more effective were launched, with focus on technical and vocational education improvements. Education boards focused on university degrees, still some did not work well for individual students, therefor excelling into higher education were not feasible .Though the womans university in Sudan are very successful . However, today Sudan strives,with some help from other nations, to provide their children with good education. Teacher demands are a major problem in Sudan (for both sides) because many qualified teachers would choose other forms of work or flee to work in foreign countries or nations. Internet access in Sudan is 7.7% and illicit drugs are used only for medicine and for health usage. Though many will smoke and use other drugs for pleasure, similar to America. Types of personal Drug usage are cigarettes tobacco, alcohol, exc.

Languages spoke in Sudan varies wildly to over 400 languages types. the North mainly speak Arabic and the South mainly English, adopted in the late 1880s. Though the south languages are Dinka, Nuer, Acholi, Madi, Otuho, Bari, Lopit, Dingidinga, Zande, Abukaya, Muru, Murule, Toposa, Buya, Pari, Shilluk, Anywak, and Lango. These languages are also spoken in over 400 dialects as well. The north holds various types of Arabic dialects, also types and forms of other ethnic languages. In universities the official language is Arabic. Also there is to be a law of Arabic language speaking in parts of Sudan.

Sudan has a military form of government with an bicameral legislature that has 50 seats; members indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms. The National Assembly has 450 seats; 60% from geographic constituencies, 25% from a women's list, and 15% from party lists; each members serve six-year terms.

Judaical Branch: in Sudan's judicial branch there are nine Constitutional Court justices, National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary.
Sudan's Executive branch is headed by the current president, Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR. The president is both the chief of state and head of government.( al-BASHIR presidency, since 16 October 1993).

Elections: are held every five (5) years for presidency. Resent elections in Sudan were on 11-15 April 2010, and the next are to be held at year 2015. Runners for presidency on 2010 were Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR, Yasir ARMAN,and Abdullah Deng NHIAL. The Results from the recent elections are: al-BASHIR with 68.2%, ARMAN with 21.7%, and lastly NHIAL with 3.9%. al-BASHIR won.
Sudan History.

People and Religion
The people of Sudan act strongly based on their religion. Sudan is based on two top Religion as mentioned before, with Muslim north and Christianity South. *The Nubian's are the group that have Muslim religion and African cultures. Muslim North believe in Allah and Muhammad as the prophet. Some pray 5 times a day facing the east to Mecha and Medina were Muslim started and the birth place of Muhammad. There are Sudanese Muslims are from two groups, the Sunni and the Sect. These two forms of Muslim hold strong brother hood beliefs. Qadiriya is the largest order in Sudan, and the Khatmiya is a big belief in Northeastern Sudan. The Non-Muslims population, who believe in African tradition or Christianity are 10% in Sudan religion base.
People: Most Muslims in Sudan are from the Middle East and live in the northern part of Sudan, migrating from Egypt to Sudan. The Christianity (South) most are originally from Sudan who believe in Christianity introduced to them by Daniel Combony.

General Attitudes and Appearance

Northern and Southern Sudan different attitudes towards other people though they hold the same types of appreciation. North and south Sudan appreciate humor, chivalry, hospitality and strong families. There difference in attitude is that South Sudan is more open to other beliefs and people. Why?... because they believe in difference and that they should not speak upon it if it dose not concern them. mainly because they are family base and everything is alright if the ones you care about are. The north attitude is more conservative and enclosed. Why is that?.. Because Northerns think carefully before acting and hold strong beliefs in accepting challenges of life because what happens, happens in the will of god.

In Sudan society is highly stratified, adding to the underprivileged class, there are Middle classes in cities and some small upper classes. Respect of power and wealth are shown in different ways. Power may be shown through government position, spiritual leader or from a respected family. The south contains these aspects also include being a local chef regardless of education or skills.
Wealth are sought through how mush cattle they are in ones herds in African nations and the nomadic Arabs by cattle, sheep, and camels in Rural places. However urban wealth is measured by property and material possessions. Though educated individuals in north and south command respect because they are sought to be the future business or government workers.
Sudanese dress well in public because they believe that they should look nice were ever they go (even if just for grocery shopping.)
Northern: Urban men wear western styled clothings or Jalabea and imma both allowed in rural areas.Married northern woman wear Tobes wrapped around the wearer with a head wrap as well. In Khartoum tobes are eligible woman work wear. Silk tobes are worn as for marriages also.
Unmarried or younger girls ware long skirts and blouses, covering there heads with a scarf known as Tarha. Most unmarried usually ware abye black tobes with black head wraps. Tobes and heavy robes are worn in Northern areas to protect against heavy desert heat and winds.
Southerns also wear western style clothings. woman clothing are similar as the northerns though southerners may wear tailored dresses or skirts and brightly printed fabric blouses with elaborate embroidery. Scarfs wrapped about the head and Tobes are also worn in the south. Womans try to wear as much jewelry as possible, wealthy womans are distinguished through amount of expensive jewelry worn.

Independence and History
Sudan holds a huge history line dating back to Ancient Egypt times, before the 1800 A.D. In the beginning Sudan ruled Egypt through the king of Nubia named Malik Banke in southern Egypt. Christianity came to Sudan through Ethiopia during his kingship. After a while the Arab from the Middle East and Arabic Peninsula came fighting with Sudan and occupying Sudan. When they took the north Turkina ruled Sudan through Egypt. Once Britain came to colonizes Egypt and Sudan, they ruled them together. Gordan Bash a ruler from Britain ruler Sudan colonized with Egypt together. Maldihya Revolution kicked out Bash and Britain. thats when Daniel Combony a Christan believer from Italy came to Sudan with his Merchants and opened lots of schools throughout Africa. Combony shared Christianity beliefs with the world, from Britain to south America and through Africa. Britain came back to ruling Sudan and Egypt tell 1956 when Sudan sought Independence from Britain January 11 1956. Britain then gave Presidency to Ismaihal al-azhari. Second presidency was given to two military coup ended by Numeiri then BASHIR a military coup who holds presidency today. Civil war started in 1955-1956 when Britain left Sudan. then war was went through Sudan up to the Agreement in 1972. The 1972 Agreement that ended the 17 years of war did not work and war broke out once again, creating the second civil war in Sudan. Anyanya II ranged from 1983-2005 agreement with Nofasa and John Garang. This marked the longest civil war in Sudan taking 21-22 years. Nofasa and Garang reached agreement in Nairobi, Kenya in January 9th 2005. North and South wait 6 years for a referendum to be made on January 2011 to combine north and south as a country. North and south fight because of many diversity, different cultures, language and resources occupied from south by the north. (Northerners who take resources from south Sudan.) Northerns also have war with Darfur because of land and resources as well. There is War in Darfur today with out reached agreements, but there are lots of sit downs and talks to reach agreement that will help end the war.

Time line:

Modern time Sudan

1820: conquered by Turkey and Egypt.

1881-1882: Rebellion against the Turkish-Egyptian administration and British invasion.

1885: Islamic religion is found in Sudan
1899: Sudan is governed by British-Egyptian rule.

Independence and government form

1955-56: Independence: Revolt, start of the civil war gaining independence in 1956.

1958-62: Military coup takes place, civilian government is removed.
Civil war breaks out in the southern (mainly Christian/African) parts of Sudan.

October 1964: Sudan rebels, National government formed.

May 1969: New military coup placing Jaafar Numeiri at power.

1972: A peace agreement is signed in Addis Ababa. The southern Sudan achieves partly self-governance.
Ingredients for war: Oil and Sharia

Start of War

1978: Large findings of oil are made in Bentiu, southern Sudan. The oil becomes an important factor in the strife between North and South.* where war starts and norther occupation in South

1983: Numieri introduces the Islamic Sharia law to Sudan leading to a new breakout of the civil war in the Christian south. In the south the forces are led by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) under command by John Garang.*1985: President Numieri is removed from power in a military coup.*1986: A civilian government is made in an effort to restore peace after general elections. *1989: Al-Bashir and his Islamic Front (NIC) takes power in a military coup.

Economic and government

1999: Sudan start an export of oil assisted by China, Canada, Sweden and other countries.

2001-March 2001: (SPLA) and famine in Sudan affects 3 million people.

*May 2001: A Danish pilot flying for the International Red Cross is attacked and killed when delivering aid in southern Sudan. All flights in the area are temporarily stopped.

June 2001: Peace negotiations breaks down in Nairobi, Kenya.

*August-September 2001: The Nile river floods leaving thousands homeless and UN Lifts sanctions against Sudan supporting ongoing peace negotiations.
October 2001-throughout : USA puts new sanctions on Sudan due to accusations of Sudan's involvement New York terror attacks. *14,550 slaves are freed after pressure from human rights groups.

Peace Hopes

July 27th 2002: President al-Bashir meets for the first time with SPLA leader John Garang. Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni arranged the meeting, the war having impacts on Uganda

July 31st -October 2002: Government attacks SPLA again.Ceasefire confirmed remaining uncertain. peace negations continue.

December 2003: Progress is made in the peace negotiations. The negotiations are mainly focused on sharing the important oil-resources.

Ethnic killings in Darfur

January 2004: Government army strikes down on uprising in Darfur region in the Western Sudan. More than 100,000 people seeks refuge in Chad.

March 2004: UN officers reports that systematic killings on villagers are taking place in Darfur. UN names Darfur as the worst humanitarian currently, but nothing happens. Everyone fails to take action.

January 9th 2005 : In Nairobi the government and rebels signs the last parts of the peace treaty for Southern Sudan. January 2005 expected date of africa's longest civil war.Peace agreement still doesn't cover the Darfur region. 1.5 million + people lost their homes since the conflict in Darfur broke out early 2003.

March 15th 2005: United Nations Security Council agrees to send 10,000 peace keeping soldiers to Southern Sudan. Again the decision does not cover the Darfur region.

2007: Violence and killings continues in the Darfur region. The conflict is in reality a genocide and is still considered the worst humanitarian disaster in the world. But not much is done about it. China has large oil interests in Africa and Sudan in particular. UN sanctions and security forces are needed, but China blocks for any real decisions in the UN security council. The rest of the world is not applying the necessary political pressure on the governments in Sudan and China.

January 2011: Peace agreement to be sign separating or keeping Sudan combined

Work Cited:;$sessionid$QHO4FIAAAFWIUP2MN5XCFEQ


Sudan...In Pictures By: Harry Jonas Lerner
DARFUR African Genocide By: John Xavier


Farther, Mangong A-Deng