THE WONDERFUL PLACE OF TANZANIA






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KYLE SIMMONS
WORLD CULTURES
MR.SHORTT
PERIOD 4

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INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND

Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.



THE LAND AND IT'S RESOURCES
LOCATION -
The location of tanzania is Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique.
AREA -
Total: 947,300 sq km. Land: 885,800 sq km. Water: 61,500 sq km. Note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar.
BOARDERS - Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km.
CLIMATE - Varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands.
TERRAIN - Plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, and south
NATURAL RESOURCES - Hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
.
LAND USE -
Arable land: 4.23%, Permanent crops: 1.16%, Other: 94.61%

NATURAL HAZARDS -
Flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season and they also worry about drought.

ENVIORMENTAL ISSUES -
The issues they face are soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory.


GOVERMENT
GOVERMENT TYPE -
The goverment type is Republic.

SUFFRAGE -
18 years of age; universal.


CAPITAL - Dar es Salaam is the capital of tanzania but legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on a regular basis.


INDEPENDENCE -
26 April 1964 Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964.


POLITICAL PARTIES AN LEADERS -
Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered); Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO].



PEOPLE
POPULATON -
41,048,532 but estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)

POPULATION GROWTH RATE -
2.04% (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 55.

NET MIGRATION RATE -
-1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 126.

INFANT MORTALITY RATE
- total:
69.28 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world:
25.
male:
76.24 deaths/1,000 live births.
female:
62.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

LIFE EXPECTANCY -
Total population: 52.01 years countrycomparison to the world: 206 male: 50.56 years, female: 53.51 years (2010 est.)

ETHNIC GROUP - Mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African.

RELIGION - Mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim.

LAUNGUAGES -
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages.
LITERACY -
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic total population: 69.4% male: 77.5% female: 62.2% (2002 census)

EDUCATION -
2.2% of GDP (1999)country comparison to the world: 164.



ECONOMY
ECONOMIC OVERVEIW -
Tanzania is in the bottom 10% of the world's economies in terms of per capita income. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-fourth of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to about 4% of the land area. Industry traditionally featured the processing of agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. Long-term growth through 2005 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported a positive growth rate, despite the world recession.

GDP PER CAPITA -
$1,400 (2009 est.), country comparison to the world: 202, $1,400 (2008 est.), $1,300 (2007 est.), note: data are in 2009 US dollars.


LABOR FORCE BY OCCUPATION -
agriculture: 80%, industry and services:
20% (2002 est.)

AGRICULTURE PRODUCTS -
Coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats.

INDUSTRIES -
6.7% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 13.

IMPORTS (COMMODITIES) -
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil.

EXPORTS (COMMODITIES) -
Gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton.

CURRENCY/EXCHANGE RATE -
Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar - 1,317.5 (2009), 1,178.1 (2008), 1,255 (2007), 1,251.9 (2006), 1,128.93 (2005).

COMMUNICATIONS/DRUGS

INTERNET USERS - 520,000 (2008) country comparison to the world: 106/ The U.S.A. has 231,000,000 internet users.

ILLICIT DRUGS - Targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia.


TOURIST INFORMATION


There are three main climatic areas in Tanzania; the coastal area and immediate hinterland, where conditions are tropical with temperatures averaging 26.6°C (80°), rainfall varying from, 40 to 76 inches and high in humidity; the central plateau, which is hot and dry (rainfall 20 to 30 inches), although with considerable daily and seasonal temperature variations and the third region is the semi-temperate highland areas, where the climate is healthy and cool. There is seasonal variation in the Lake Victoria area. The eastern sections average only 30 to 40 inches of rain, while the western parts receive up to 90 inches. A small area north of Lake Malawi receive 100 inches of rain. There are two rainy seasons; from November to December and from April to mid-June.

FLAG


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DESCRIPTION

The flag of Tanzania was officially adopted on June 30, 1964. The green and black, representing the land and people of Tanzania, were taken from the original Tanganyikan flag. The blue, symbolizing the sea, was borrowed from the Zanzibar flag.








THE MAP OF TANZANIA
Map of Tanzania
Map of Tanzania














Tanzania Timeline

A chronology of key events in Tanzania's history

800s
Kilwa is established as a trading settlement by Arabs, whilst Persian traders settle at Pemba and on Zanzibar.
1200
The distinctive mix of Arabs, Persians and Africans develops into the Swahili culture.
1498
Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer, sails up Tanzanian coast.
1500-09
Swahili ports along the Tanzanian coast are seized by Portuguese.
1699
Zanzibar is commandeered by Omanis who make it the centre of their maritime empire, eventually to become its capital.
1858
Richard Burton and John Hanning Speke arrive at Lake Tanganika and Lake Victoria.
1867
British campaign against Zanzibar slave trade starts.
1873
The Sultan of Zanzibar is forced to close his slave market by the British.
1884
The Gesellschaft für Deutsche Kolonisation (Society for German Colonisation), co-founded by Carl Peters, begins exploring the mainland.
1885
With the conclusion of the Berlin West African Conference a German protectorate is created in East Africa under the control of the Deutsch Osta-Afrikanischen Gesellschaft (German East-African Society) .
1890
Britain takes over Zanzibar as a protectorate.
1891
Deutsch-Ostafrika (German East Africa) colony is created.

1905-07
Maji Maji Rebellion put down by German troops.
1914
General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, the commander of German forces in East Africa, begins a guerrilla style war against the British and her Allies.
1916
Majority of German East Africa is occupied by British and South African troops.
1919
Following the defeat of German in the Great War, Tanganyika is given by the League of Nations as a mandate to the British.
1929
Formation of the Tanganyika African Association (TAA) .
1946
British mandate over Tanganyika is converted into a trusteeship by the United Nations.
1954
Julius Kambarage Nyerere and Oscar Kambona create the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) out of the remnants of the TAA.
1958
Tanganyika is given internal self-government by the British.
1961
Tanganyika achieves independence (9 December) .
1962
Julius Kambarage Nyerere is first president of the newly formed Republic of Tanganyika (9 December), having previously served as Prime Minister under the British Governor-General Richard Gordon Turnbull. Nyerere introduces his own form of African socialism.
1963
Zanzibar achieves independence (10 December) .
1964
In a violent revolution, left-wing forces overthrow the Sultanate of Zanzibar and the People's Republic of Zanzibar is proclaimed (12 January). Shortly after Tanganyika and Zanzibar are merged together as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar (26 April) with Nyerere as president (and Abeid Amani Rashid Karume as president of Zanzibar). The United Republic of Tanzania was proclaimed on 29 Oct.
1967
Arusha Declaration - President Nyerere outlines his own version of socialism, Ujamaa. Nyerere's vision called for socialism, self-reliance and a belief in human equality (5 February) .
1975
The Tanzania-Zambia railroad (known as the Tan-Zam) is completed.
1977
Merger of Tanzania African National Union (TANU) and Zanzibar's Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) to create the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM - Revolutionary State Party). The CCM is declared to be the only legal political party in Tanzania.
1978
With the assistance of Libyan troops, Idi Amin attempts to annex Kagera, Tanzania's northern province.
1979
Tanzanian forces invade Uganda and capture the capital Kampala. The president of Uganda, Idi Amin, flees to Libya.
1985
President Ali Hassan Mwinyi comes into power, Mwinyi had been president of Zanzibar (5 November). Nyerere's socialist experiment is eased.
1992
Tanzania's constitution is amended to allow multi-party democracy.
1994
Tanzania accepts 800,000 refugees form ethnic violence in Rwanda and Burundi.
1995
Benjamin William Mkapa of the CCM becomes president after first multi-party elections (23 November).
1998
US embassy buildings in Dar es Salaam are destroyed by a terrorist blast.
1999
Julius Kambarage Nyerere dies (14 October) .
2001
Offices of opposition party, Civic United Front (CUF), in Zanzibar are raided: two people are killed. Period of violence follows the government's ban on opposition rallies. The CCM and CUF finally reach agreement and normality is restored. Tanzania rekindles the East African Community with Kenya and Uganda. Presidents of all three countries launch a regional parliament and court of justice to act on common matters.
2005
Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete of the CCM becomes president (21 December).
2006
African Development Bank cancels more than $640 million of debt.

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WORKS CITED

http://africanhistory.about.com/od/tanzania/l/bl-Tanzania-Timeline.html

http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/africa/tanzania/

http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/flags/countrys/africa/tanzania.html

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tz.html