description
four equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), white, red, and blue, with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist; centered within the triangle is a white crescent with the convex side facing the hoist and four white, five-pointed stars placed vertically in a line between the points of the crescent; the horizontal bands and the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, N'gazidja, Nzwani, and Mahore (Mayotte - territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros)
note: the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam






Background:. Comoros has endured more than 20 coups or attempted coups since gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands of Anjouan and Moheli declared independence from Comoros. In 1999, military chief Col. AZALI seized power in a bloodless coup, and helped negotiate the 2000 Fomboni Accords power-sharing agreement in which the federal presidency rotates among the three islands, and each island maintains its own local government. AZALI won the 2002 presidential election, and each island in the archipelago elected its own president. AZALI stepped down in 2006 and President SAMBI was elected to office. In 2007, Mohamed BACAR effected Anjouan's de-facto secession from the Union, refusing to step down in favor of fresh Anjouanais elections when Comoros' other islands held legitimate elections in July. The African Union (AU) initially attempted to resolve the political crisis by applying sanctions and a naval blockade on Anjouan, but in March 2008, AU and Comoran soldiers seized the island. The move was generally welcomed by the island's inhabitants.


however, the
Location: Southern Africa,

Area:
slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC



Borders:



Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Government type:
Republic
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

GDP per capita: $1,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
$1,000 (2008 est.)
$1,000 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars

Agriculture: vanilla, cloves, ylang-ylang, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Imports:
Religion : Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%
Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 35.87%
permanent crops: 23.32%
other: 40.81% (2005)

Natural hazards: cyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); Le Karthala on Grand Comore is an active volcano
Environmental issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)
Capital: Moroni
Leader:
Labor force by occupation: agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (1996 est.)
Industries: fishing, tourism, perfume distillation
Currency/exchange rate: Comoran francs (KMF) per US dollar - 361.4 (2007), 391.8 (2006), 395.6 (2005), 396.21 (2004), 435.9 (2003)
note: the Comoran franc is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677 Comoran francs per euro
Education:
population: 752,438 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: \
Population growth rate: 2.766% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world
net migration rate:
NA
Infant mortality rate: total: 66.57 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 30
male: 74.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 58.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
life expectancy: total population: 63.47 years
country comparison to the world: 171
male: 61.07 years
female: 65.94 years (2010 est.)
literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 56.5%
male: 63.6%
female: 49.3% (2003 est
independece:
6 july 1975 from france
Economic overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. Export income is heavily reliant on the three main crops of vanilla, cloves, and ylang-ylang and Comoros' export earnings are easily disrupted by disasters such as fires. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government - which is hampered by internal political disputes - lacks a comprehensive strategy to attract foreign investment and is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, improve health services, diversify exports, promote tourism, and reduce the high population growth rate. Political problems have inhibited growth, which has averaged only about 1% in 2006-09. Remittances from 150,000 Comorans abroad help supplement GDP. In September 2009 the IMF approved a three-year $21 million loan for Comoros.
Unemployment: 20% (1996 est.)
country comparison to the world:
Exports:
vanilla, ylang-ylang (perfume essence), cloves, copra
Illicit drugs:
Internet access: 23,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world







1.
1975
Jul 6, 1975 - Infuriated, the Comoros government in Moroni declared independence of the entire chain of islands from France unilaterally on 6 July 1975. The French reacted by cutting all aid and sending the Navy to defend Mayotte from any invasion from the new Comoros ...Infuriated, the Comoros government in Moroni declared independence of the entire chain of islands from France unilaterally on 6 July 1975. The French reacted by cutting all aid and sending the Navy to defend Mayotte from any invasion from the new Comoros state, which soon received UN recognition in its entirety, including the French controlled island of Mayotte. Comoros' claim over Mayotte was also recognised by the African Union.

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From Mayotte & Réunion: A Rendezvous With France in Africa - Related web pages
weecheng.com/africa/indianocean/frenchisles ...

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2.
3.
1989
Nov 1989 - Until the assassination of Presi- dent Abdallah in November 1989, the Comoros was a de facto one-party state. There followed a brief rule by European mercenaries, who had served as officers in the presidential guard, and then French troops arrived to stabilize ...COMOROS Located in the Mozambique Channel between East Africa and Madagascar, the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros comprises three islands and claims a fourth, Mayotte, which is stUl governed by France. Until the assassination of Presi- dent Abdallah in November 1989, the Comoros was a de facto one-party state. There followed a brief rule by European mercenaries, who had served as officers in the presidential guard, and then French troops arrived to ...

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From Full text of "Country reports on human rights practices : report submitted to … - Related web pages
www.archive.org/stream ...

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4.
5.
1995
Sep 28, 1995 - 97. Regarding the invasion and attempted coup d'état in the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros on 28 September 1995, which was carried out by mercenaries, the Special Rapporteur recommends that the Commission on Human Rights extend its support for the ...97. Regarding the invasion and attempted coup d'état in the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros on 28 September 1995, which was carried out by mercenaries, the Special Rapporteur recommends that the Commission on Human Rights extend its support for the sovereignty and independence of the Comoros and for the observance of the right of its people to self-determination. In order to contribute to promoting and protecting the human rights of the population of the Comoros ...

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From UN Commission on Human Rights Thematic Reports - Use of … - Related web pages
www1.umn.edu/humanrts//commission/thematic52 ...

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6.
7.
1996
Nov 1996 - In another incident, in November 1996, an Ethiopian Airlines 767 was ditched into the sea near the //Comoros// Islands, while attempting to land after being hijacked. However, the loss of EgyptAir's 767 comes after a string of recent incidents involving Boeing ...In another incident, in November 1996, an Ethiopian Airlines 767 was ditched into the sea near the //Comoros// Islands, while attempting to land after being hijacked. However, the loss of EgyptAir's 767 comes after a string of recent incidents involving Boeing aircraft, and at the same time as the US National Transportation Safety Board condemned Boeing Company for not alerting them to an important safety study, which focused on the threat of over heating in fuel tanks.

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From A string of disasters - Related web pages
news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/500264.stm

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8.
9.
1997
Aug 3, 1997 - Anjouan, one of the four Comoros Islands, located off Mozambique, declared independence Aug. 3, 1997. The Comoros government on Grand Comore sent troops to the breakaway island a month later. The OAU delegation, comprising a dozen military and security ...Anjouan, one of the four Comoros Islands, located off Mozambique, declared independence Aug. 3, 1997. The Comoros government on Grand Comore sent troops to the breakaway island a month later. The OAU delegation, comprising a dozen military and security officials from Kenya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Tanzania and South Africa, was expected to make a recommendation to the Ethiopia-based OAU, said Foreign Ministry spokesman Marco Boni. It wasn't clear when that ...

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From African organization pondering military intervention in //Comoros// - Related web pages
docs.newsbank.com/g/GooglePM/APAB/lib00582 ...

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10.
11.
2001
Dec 23, 2001 - The Constitution of the Union of the Comoros was ratified by referendum on December 23, 2001, and the islands' constitutions and executives were elected in the following months.Politics of the Union of the Comoros takes place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of the Comoros is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The Constitution of the Union of the Comoros was ratified by referendum on December 23, 2001, and the islands' constitutions and executives were elected in the following months.

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From //Comoros// | Wiki //Comoros// - Related web pages
www.africa.com/comoros

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12.
13.
2007
Jun 2007 - The Comoros did not recognise the re-election of Anjouan leader Colonel Mohamed Bacar in June 2007.More than 500 African Union troops landed on the Comoros island of Moheli yesterday to join forces massed to retake the rebel island of Anjouan. 400 Tanzanian and 168 Sudanese soldiers join 500 AU soldiers as well as 400 local troops in the port town of Fomboni all poised to end the stand-off between Comoros and Anjouan. The Comoros did not recognise the re-election of Anjouan leader Colonel Mohamed Bacar in June 2007.

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From Woolly Days: March 2008 - Related web pages
nebuchadnezzarwoollyd.blogspot.com ...

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14.
15.
2008
Mar 22, 2008 - Tanzanian African Union (AU) troops arrive onto a beach during military training exercises in Fomboni, the capital of //Comoros// island of Moheli on March 22, 2008. MORONI -- The president of the Comoros archipelago authorized an African Union- backed ...Tanzanian African Union (AU) troops arrive onto a beach during military training exercises in Fomboni, the capital of //Comoros// island of Moheli on March 22, 2008. MORONI -- The president of the Comoros archipelago authorized an African Union- backed assault on rebel Anjouan island on Monday, sending helicopters to drop leaflets warning locals to stay at home. “In the hours, or the days to come, Anjouan will be liberated by force, or, I dare to hope, the rebels will ...

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From //Comoros// authorizes assault on rebel Anjouan island - Related web pages
www.nationalpost.com/news/story.html?id=396636

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16.
17.
2009
Jun 30, 2009 - A Yemenia airliner with more than 150 people on board has crashed in the Indian Ocean en route for the Comoros islands. ... 1230 GMT: The black box's signal is located by an aerial patrol 40 kilometers (24 miles) from Njazidja, the main Comoros island which is also known as Grande ...
From BBC NEWS | Africa | //Timeline// of Flight IY626 - Related web pages
news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8126180.stm

18.
19.
2010
Jun 2, 2010 - 1527 Portuguese cartographer Diego Ribero depicts the Comoros islands on a European map for the first time ... 1942 British forces invade the Comoros and Madagascar toppling the proVichy administration and handing the territories over to the Free French government of Charles de Gaulle ...
From BBC News - //Timeline//: //Comoros// - Related web pages
news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1070770.stm


Work cites:
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/